Universities, businesses, the military, and other institutions have found innovative ways, from introducing young students to the challenges of science to recruiting and retaining women in senior-level positions. Review best practices with potentially wide application.
Each month the NUWS highlights innovative programs, policies, or practices at a university, college, academic health center, or organization which support the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in scientific careers.
4 Researchers.org – Practical Advice from Working Researchers Searchable multimedia collection of practical, engaging "how-to" information about conducting research in the behavioral sciences and other related fields.
Advisory Committee to the NIH Director Biomedical Workforce Working Group Report: Executive Summary Report of a group developing a model for a sustainable and diverse U.S. biomedical research workforce that can inform decisions about training the optimal number of people for the appropriate types of positions that will advance science and promote health.
Advisory Committee to the NIH Director Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce Working Group Report: Executive Summary Report of a group tasked to address the unacceptable status quo of minority underrepresentation in biomedical and behavioral research. Includes recommendations for best practices.
Ali, Sam. “Study: Women Still Not Getting to the Top Levels.” Diversity Inc. Nov 29, 2010.
AXXS 2002: Achieving XXcellence in Science: Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science (2004) Workshop report identifying ways to enhance the participation of women scientists in the clinical research workforce.
Balafoutas, L. and Sutter, M. “Affirmative Action Policies Promote Women and Do Not Harm Efficiency in the Laboratory.” Science. 335: 579-582. 2012.
Barr, S. “Family-Leave Plan is Halved.” Washington Post April 16, 2008.
Bascom-Slack, Carol A. “Balancing Science and Family: Tidbits of Wisdom from Those Who’ve Tried It and Succeeded.” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 84: 219-225. 2011.
Bedi, G., Van Dam, N.T., and Munafo, M. “Gender Inequality in Awarded Research Grants.” The Lancet. 380: 474. August 4, 2012.
Benderly, Beryl. “A Nobel Laureate's Advice to Women Scientists.” Science Careers Blog. June 7, 2011.
Bhattacharjee, Y. “NSF’s Big Pitch Tests Anonymized Grant Reviews.” Science. 336: 969-970. May 2012.
Carnes, M., Devine, P.G., Isaac, C., Manwell, L.B., Ford, C.E., Byars-Winston, A., Fine, E., and Sheridan,J.T. “Promoting Institutional Change Through Bias Literacy.” Journal of Diversity in Higher Education. 5(2): 63-77. 2012.
Chatterji, Pinka, Sara Markowitz, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn “Early Maternal Employment and Family Wellbeing.” NBER, 2009.
Childbirth Policy for Women Graduate Students at Stanford University Sample policy to provide an academic accommodation period to female graduate students anticipating a birth.
Cherney, I. and Campbell, K. “A League of Their Own: Do Single-Sex Schools Increase Girls’ Participation in the Physical Sciences." Sex Roles. 65: 712-724.
Cole, Stephanie, Michelle Arnold, Alicia Sanderson, and Craig Cupp. “Pregnancy During Otolaryngology Residency: Experience and Recommendations.” The American Surgeon. 75(5):411-5. May 2009.
Conley, D. and Stadmark, J. “Gender Matters: A Call to Commission More Women Writers.” Nature. 488:
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Davidson, Joe. “Room at the Top for More Diversity.” The Washington Post. 3 Dec 2008.
De Melo-Martín I. “Patenting and the gender gap: should women be encouraged to patent more?” SciEng Ethics (2013) 19(2): 491-504.
DeLisa, J.A. and Lindenthal JJ. “Commentary: reflections on diversity and inclusion in medical education.” Academic Medicine (2012) 87(11): 1461-3.
Dublin, Matthew. “Lessons of the Leaky Pipeline.” Genome Technology. October 1, 2010.
Duch, J. Zeng, X.H., Sales-Pardo, M., Radicchi, F., Otis, S., Woodruff, T.K., and Nunes Amaral, L.A. “The Possible Role of Resource Requirements and Academic Career-Choice Risk on Gender Differences in Publication Rate and Impact.” PLoSOne. 7(12):e51332, December 2012.
Ehrenberg, Ronald G., George H. Jakubson, Mirinda L. Martin, Joyce B. Main, and Thomas Eisenberg. “Do Trustees and Administrators Matter? Diversifying the Faculty Across Gender Lines.” National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 15606. December 2009.
Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisors. Work-LifeBalanceand the Economics of Workplace Flexibility. March 2010.
Federal Demonstration Partnership Task Force on Parental and Family Leave for Research Trainees. “A Forgotten Class of Scientists: Examining the Parental and Family Benefits Available to Research Trainees.” Washington, DC. January 2012.
“Female Doctors Facing Barriers To Careers In Education And Research, Study Finds - UK.” Medical News Today 19 Jul 2007.
Gasman, Marybeth. “HBCU’s Are Not Segregated Institutions.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, Innovations Blog. February 12, 2011.
Ginther, D.K., Haak, L.L., Schaffer, W.T., and Kington, R. “Are Race, Ethnicity, and Medical School Affiliation Associated with NIH R01 Type 1 Award Probability for Physician Investigators.” Academic Medicine. 87: 1516-1524, November 2012.
Ginther, Donna K., Schaffer, Walter T., Schnell, Joshua, Masimore, Beth, Liu, Faye, Haak, Laurel L., and Kington, Raynard. “Race, Ethnicity and NIH Research Awards.” Science. 333: 1015-1019. August 19,
Guess, Andy. “From Summers to Sommers.” Inside Higher Ed 2 Oct 2007.
Harrison, Rebecca A., and Jessica L. Gregg. “A Time for Change: An Exploration of Attitudes Toward Part- Time Work in Academia Among Women Internists and Their Division Chiefs.” Academic Medicine84(1): 80-86. January 2009.
Hegarty, P., and Walton, Z. “The Consequences of Predicting Scientific Impact in Psychology Using Journal Impact Factors.” Perspectives on Psychological Science. 7: 72-78. January 2012.
Hermes J. “House Panel Hears Ideas on Increasing Number of Women on Science and Engineering Faculties.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. 2007 Oct 18.
Holmes, M.A. “Working Together.” Nature. 489: 327-8. September 2012.
Hoover, Eric. “Report Reveals Increasing Diversity of Students at U. of California.” Chronicle of Higher Education 11 Oct 2007.
Isaac, Carol, Barbara Lee, and Molly Carnes. “Interventions That Affect Gender Bias in Hiring: A Systematic Review.” Academic Medicine. 84(10):1440-6. October 2009.
Isbell, L.A., Young, T.P., and Harcourt, A.H. “Stag Parties Linger: Continued Gender Bias in a Female-Rich Scientific Discipline.” PLoSOne. 7(11):e49682, November 2012.
Jaschik, Scott. “Impact of Women on Search Committees.” Inside Higher Ed. January 3, 2011.
Jaschik, Scott. “Redefining Where Salary Gaps Linger.” Inside Higher Education 19 Jun 2008.
Jaschik, Scott. “Stopping the Clock... on Grants.” Inside Higher Ed 27 Feb 2009.
Kaufman, Ted. "Advancing STEM Education." Chemical & Engineering News. April 5, 2010: 3.
Kelly III, JE. “Bridging Engineering’s Minority Gap.” Business Week Febraury 15, 2008.
Kenagy, G.P., Schneidman, B.S., Barzansky, B., Dalton, C.E., Sirio, C.A., and Skochelak, S.E. “Physician Reentry into Clinical Practice: Regulatory Challenges.” Journal of Medical Regulation. 97: 10-14.
Kurtz MJ, Eichhorn G, Accomazzi A, Grant C, and Murray SS. “Keeping Bibliographies Using ADS.” Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems VII, ASP Conference Series Volume 145 (1998).
Leboy, P.S. and Madden, J.F. “Limitations on Diversity in Basic Science Departments.” DNA and Cell Biology. 31(8): 1365-1371. 2012.
Lincoln, A., Pincus, S., Bandows Koster, J., and Leboy, P. “The Matilda Effect in Science: Awards and Prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.” Social Studies of Science. 42: 307-320. 2012.
Lincoln, Anne E., Stephanie Pincus, and Vanessa Schlick. “Evaluating Science or Evaluating Gender?.” APS News Jun 2009: 8.
Maloney, E., Waechter, S., Risko, E., and Fugelsang, J. “Reducing the Sex Difference in Math Anxiety: The Role of Spatial Processing Ability.” Learning and Individual Differences. 22: 380-384. 2012.
Mejia , Robin. "Gender Stop-Gaps: Women are still underrepresented in academic science, and universities are struggling to do something about it. But there are efforts afoot" Nature. 465(7299):832. June 9, 2010.
Mervis, Jeffrey. “NIH Report Urges Greater Emphasis on Training for All Graduate Students.” Science. 331(6017):525. February 4, 2011.
Mohapatra, Aditi, Amy Augustine, and Karen Bulthuis. “Examining the Cracks in the Ceiling: A Survey of Corporate Diversity Practices of the S&P 100.” Calvert Investments. October 2010.
“Mommyhood by the numbers.” msnbc.com 12 Nov 2007.
Monastersky, Richard. “Congressional Panel Considers Call for More Female Science Professors.”Chronicle of Higher Education 8 May 2008.
Moss-Racusin, C.A., Dovidio, J.F., Brescoll, V.L., Graham, M.J., and Handelsman, J. “Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male students.” PNAS. Published online before print September 17, 2012, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1211286109.
Murphy, Mary C, Claude M Steele, and James J Gross. “Signaling Threat: How Situational Cues Affect Women in Math, Science, and Engineering Settings.” Psychological Science 18.10 (2007): 879-85.
Myers, S.L., and Fealing, K.H. “Changes in the Representation of Women and Minorities in Biomedical Careers.” Academic Medicine. 87: 1525-1529. November 2012.
Opportunities to Address Clinical Research Workforce Diversity Needs for 2010 (2006) Describes current public and private programs and recommends ways to recruit and retain more women and underrepresented minorities into clinical research, especially physician-scientists and nurses.
Parker, Alex M. “Parental leave act moves closer to law.” Government Executive.com.4 Jun 2009.
Pelletier, Stephen G. “Love and the Pursuit of Balance: Dual-career Couples in Academic Medicine.” AAMC Reporter. February 2011.
“Racial Discrimination in Science: A Black and White Answer.” The Economist. August 20, 2011.
Sanserino, Michael. “Push for Time Off Gains in Many States.” Wall Street Journal 22 Jun 2009.
Schaffhauser, Dian. “Research: STEM Efforts for Females Poorly Measured.” The Journal. April 14, 2011
Shellenbarger S. “First Lady to Speak at White House Workplace Flexibility Forum.” Wall Street Journal. March 31, 2010.
Shollen, S Lynn, Carole Bland, and Anne L. Taylor. “Organizational Climate and Family Life: How These Factors Affect the Status of Women Faculty at One Medical School.” Academic Medicine 84(1): 87-94. January 2009.
Symonds, Matthew R E et al. “Gender Differences in Publication Output: Towards an Unbiased Metric of Research Performance.” PLOSONE (2006): e127.
“The White House and National Science Foundation Announce New Workplace Flexibility Policies to Support America’s Scientists and their Families.” White House Press Release. September 26, 2011.
To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering (2006) Identifies and discusses better practices for recruitment, retention, and promotion for women scientists and engineers in academia.
Untener, J., “Giving Birth to a Good Policy.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(45), B30. July 18, 2008.
Valantine, H; Sandborg, C. “Changing the Culture of Academic Medicine to Eliminate the Gender Leadership Gap: 50/50 by 2020.” Acad Med.(2013) 88: 1411 – 1413.
Villablanca, A.C., Beckett, L., Nettiksimmons, J., and Howell, L.P. “Improving Knowledge, Awareness, and Use of Flexible Career Policies Through an Accelerator Intervention at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine.” Academic Medicine. 88: 771-777. June 2013.
Wademan, M. “NIH tackles major workforce issues.” Nature. 492: 167, December 2012.
Westring, A.F., Speck, R.M., Sammel, M.D., Scott, P., Tuton, L.W., Grisso, J.A., and Abbuhl, S. “A Culture Conducive to Women’s Academic Success: Development of a Measure.” Academic Medicine. 87: 1622-1631. November 2012.
Wilson, R., “More Colleges Are Adding Family-Friendly Benefits.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(45), B22. July 18, 2008.
Winslow O. “Adelphi Sued Over Professors' Pay Disparity.” Newsday 2007 Sep 25.
“Working double-blind.” Nature 2008 Feb 7;451: 605Budden AE, Tregenza T, Aarssen LW, Koricheva J, Leimu R, Lorite CJ. “Double-blind Review Favours Increased Representation of Female Authors.” Trendsin Ecology and Evolution 23 (1): 4.
Yang, J., Vannier, M.W., Wang, F., Deng, Y., Ou, F., Bennett, J., Liu, Y., and Wang, G. “A Bibliometric Analysis of Academic Publication and NIH Funding.” Journal of Informetrics. 7(2): 318-324, April 2013.
Yang, S. (2009, January 6). "Link Between Maternity Leave, Fewer C-Sections And Increased Breastfeeding." Medical News Today.
Yost, Cali Williams. “How to Make Workplace Flexibility About All of Us (Not Just Women).” Forbes. May 11, 2011.
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